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  1. Celiac disease (CD) diagnosis can be established by serological and small bowel biopsy (SBB), while absence of HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 haplotypes excludes the disease. The present study aims at evaluating the diagnos...

    Authors: Basim M. Ayesh, Eman Kh. Zaqout and Maged M. Yassin

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2017 8:11

    Content type: Original Article

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  2. The sequencing of the human genome is now well recognized as the starting point of personalized medicine. Nonetheless, everyone is unique and can develop different phenotypes of the same disease, despite ident...

    Authors: Silvia Sirotti, Elena Generali, Angela Ceribelli, Natasa Isailovic, Maria De Santis and Carlo Selmi

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2017 8:10

    Content type: Review Article

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  3. In the last two decades, thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) measurement has progressively switched from marker of thyroid autoimmunity to test associated with thyroglobulin (Tg) to verify the presence or abse...

    Authors: F. D’Aurizio, P. Metus, A. Ferrari, B. Caruso, R. Castello, D. Villalta, A. Steffan, K. Gaspardo, F. Pesente, N. Bizzaro, E. Tonutti, S. Valverde, C. Cosma, M. Plebani and R. Tozzoli

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2017 8:8

    Content type: Original Article

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  4. The anion channel protein band 3 is the main target of the pathogenic red blood cells (RBC) autoantibodies in New Zealand black (NZB) mice. CD4 T cells from NZB mice with autoimmune hemolytic anemia respond to...

    Authors: Abdel-Rahman Youssef and Christopher J. Elson

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2017 8:7

    Content type: Original Article

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  5. Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by an immune-mediated disorder, which leads to the development of non-caseating granulomas in the involved organs. More than 90% of patients with sarcoidosis pre...

    Authors: Moris Sangineto, Chiara Valentina Luglio, Patrizia Suppressa, Carlo Sabbà and Nicola Napoli

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2017 8:6

    Content type: Case Report

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  6. To explore the role of plasmatic platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), a marker of cardiovascular risk, in patients with anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL).

    Authors: Martina Fabris, Adriana Cifù, Cinzia Pistis, Massimo Siega-Ducaton, Desrè Ethel Fontana, Roberta Giacomello, Elio Tonutti and Francesco Curcio

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2017 8:5

    Content type: Original Article

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  7. Testing for total antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is a critical tool for diagnosis and management of autoimmune diseases at both the primary care and subspecialty settings. Repurposing of ANA from a test for lupu...

    Authors: Konstantin N. Konstantinov and Robert L. Rubin

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2017 8:4

    Content type: Review Article

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  8. The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is the target autoantigen for TSHR-stimulating autoantibodies in Graves’ disease. The TSHR is composed of: a leucine-rich repeat domain (LRD), a hinge region or ...

    Authors: Ricardo Núñez Miguel, Jane Sanders, Jadwiga Furmaniak and Bernard Rees Smith

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 8:2

    Content type: Original Article

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  9. Antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) targeting the dense fine speckled antigen DFS70, also known as lens epithelium-derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75), are attracting attention due to their low frequency in sys...

    Authors: Mónica Vázquez-Del Mercado, Eduardo Gómez-Bañuelos, Rosa Elena Navarro-Hernández, Oscar Pizano-Martinez, Adan Saldaña-Millán, Efrain Chavarria-Avila, Lorena Gonzalez-Rosas, Lilia Andrade-Ortega, Miguel Angel Saavedra, Olga Lidia Vera-Lastra, Luis Javier Jara, Gabriel Medrano-Ramírez, Claudia Cruz-Reyes, Ignacio García-De la Torre, Marta Escarra-Senmarti, Lisiane Maria Enriconi-Dos Anjos…

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 8:1

    Content type: Original Article

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  10. Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is an autoimmune degenerative disease of the muscle, with inflammatory infiltrates and inclusion vacuoles. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood and the diagnosis is ...

    Authors: Sabine L. Kramp, Dmitry Karayev, Guo Shen, Allan L. Metzger, Robert I. Morris, Eugene Karayev, Yvonne Lam, Richard M. Kazdan, Ger J. M. Pruijn, Sandra Saschenbrecker, Cornelia Dähnrich and Wolfgang Schlumberger

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:16

    Content type: Original Article

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  11. Autoantibodies to intracellular ‘rods and rings’ structures (anti-rods/rings or anti-RR) are strongly associated with hepatitis C (HCV) patients treated with interferon-α/ribavirin (IFN/RBV) and are linked wit...

    Authors: S. John Calise, Nicola Bizzaro, Thuy Nguyen, Danila Bassetti, Brunetta Porcelli, Paolo Almi, Giuseppina Barberio, Giampaola Pesce, Minoru Satoh and Edward K. L. Chan

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:15

    Content type: Short Communication

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  12. The enumeration of intraepithelial lymphocytes subsets (total, γδ, and CD3 IELs) by flow cytometry (FCM), named as IEL lymphogram, constitutes a useful tool for celiac disease (CD) diagnosis. The aim of this stu...

    Authors: M. Sánchez-Castañon, B. G. Castro, M. Toca, C. Santacruz, M. Arias-Loste, P. Iruzubieta, J. Crespo and Marcos López-Hoyos

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:14

    Content type: Original Article

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  13. Exogenous and endogenous environmental exposures and particularly infections may participate in the breakage of tolerance and the induction of autoimmunity in rheumatic diseases. Response to infections apparen...

    Authors: Lazaros I. Sakkas and Dimitrios P. Bogdanos

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:13

    Content type: Review Article

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  14. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system that involves several not yet fully elucidated pathophysiologic mechanisms. There is increasing...

    Authors: Maria Sokratous, Efthimios Dardiotis, Zisis Tsouris, Eleni Bellou, Amalia Michalopoulou, Vasileios Siokas, Stylianos Arseniou, Tzeni Stamati, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Dimitrios Bogdanos and Georgios M. Hadjigeorgiou

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:12

    Content type: Review Article

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  15. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been extensively studied in the induction of inflammation and tissue damage, especially as it relates to aging. In more recent years, ROS have been implicated in the pathogen...

    Authors: Giulia Di Dalmazi, Jason Hirshberg, Daniel Lyle, Joudeh B. Freij and Patrizio Caturegli

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:11

    Content type: Review Article

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  16. The presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is associated with a wide range of ANA-associated autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AARD). The most commonly method used for the detection of ANA is indirect immunoflu...

    Authors: Simón Gundín, Juan Irure-Ventura, Esther Asensio, David Ramos, Michael Mahler, Victor Martínez-Taboada and Marcos López-Hoyos

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:10

    Content type: Original Article

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  17. Reflex tests are widely used in clinical laboratories, for example, to diagnose thyroid disorders or in the follow-up of prostate cancer. Reflex tests for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) have recently gained atte...

    Authors: Elio Tonutti, Nicola Bizzaro, Gabriella Morozzi, Antonella Radice, Luigi Cinquanta, Danilo Villalta, Renato Tozzoli, Marilina Tampoia, Brunetta Porcelli, Martina Fabris, Ignazio Brusca, Maria Grazia Alessio, Giuseppina Barberio, Maria Concetta Sorrentino, Antonio Antico, Danila Bassetti…

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:9

    Content type: Original Article

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  18. The dense fine speckled (DFS) pattern as detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on HEp-2 cells has been associated with several inflammatory diseases but is most commonly observed in individuals that do...

    Authors: Chelsea Bentow, Marvin J. Fritzler, Eckart Mummert and Michael Mahler

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:8

    Content type: Original Article

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  19. Autoimmune disorders are known to be more frequent in women and often associated each others, but it is rare to see multiple autoimmune diseases in a single patient. Recently, the concept of multiple autoimmun...

    Authors: Viera Boccuti, Antonio Perrone, Alessia D’Introno, Anna Campobasso, Moris Sangineto and Carlo Sabbà

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:7

    Content type: Case Report

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  20. The complement system is an enzyme cascade that helps defend against infection. Many complement proteins occur in serum as inactive enzyme precursors or reside on cell surfaces. Complement components have many...

    Authors: Samuel Antwi-Baffour, Ransford Kyeremeh, Jonathan Kofi Adjei, Claudia Aryeh and George Kpentey

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:6

    Content type: Review Article

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  21. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) identifies the microvascular hallmarks of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and may play a pivotal role in the associated vasculopathy. ...

    Authors: Maria De Santis, Angela Ceribelli, Francesca Cavaciocchi, Chiara Crotti, Marco Massarotti, Laura Belloli, Bianca Marasini, Natasa Isailovic, Elena Generali and Carlo Selmi

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:5

    Content type: Original Article

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  22. Behçet’s disease, also known as the Silk Road Disease, is a rare systemic vasculitis disorder of unknown etiology. Recurrent attacks of acute inflammation characterize Behçet’s disease. Frequent oral aphthous ...

    Authors: Mohamad J. Zeidan, David Saadoun, Marlene Garrido, David Klatzmann, Adrien Six and Patrice Cacoub

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:4

    Content type: Review Article

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  23. The hygiene hypothesis, formulated to explain the increased incidence of allergic and autoimmune diseases observed in industrialized countries, remains controversial. We reflected upon this hypothesis during ...

    Authors: Giorgio Caturegli and Patrizio Caturegli

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:3

    Content type: Original Article

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  24. Celiac disease (CD) serology requires analysis of tissue transglutaminase type-2 (TG2autoAbs), deamidated gliadin (DGAbs), and as reference endomysial autoantibodies (EmA). Total IgA assessment helps to determ...

    Authors: Kai Grossmann, Nadja Röber, Rico Hiemann, Stefan Rödiger, Peter Schierack, Dirk Reinhold, Martin W. Laass, Karsten Conrad and Dirk Roggenbuck

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:2

    Content type: Original Article

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  25. The International Consensus on ANA Patterns (ICAP) was initiated as a workshop aiming to thoroughly discuss and achieve consensus regarding the morphological patterns observed in the indirect immunofluorescenc...

    Authors: Jan Damoiseaux, Carlos A. von Mühlen, Ignacio Garcia-De La Torre, Orlando Gabriel Carballo, Wilson de Melo Cruvinel, Paulo Luiz Carvalho Francescantonio, Marvin J. Fritzler, Manfred Herold, Tsuneyo Mimori, Minoru Satoh, Luis E. C. Andrade, Edward K. L. Chan and Karsten Conrad

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:1

    Content type: Original Article

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  26. Adult onset Still’s disease (AOSD) is a systemic auto-inflammatory condition of unknown etiology, characterized by high fever, an evanescent, salmon-pink maculopapular skin rash, arthralgia or arthritis and le...

    Authors: Despina Michailidou, Junghee Shin, Inga Forde, Kavitha Gopalratnam, Paul Cohen and Angela DeGirolamo

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2015 6:71

    Content type: Case Report

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  27. The estimation of the upper reference limit (URL) for autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOAbs) is a controversial issue, because of an uncertainty associated with the criteria used to correctly defin...

    Authors: Federica D’Aurizio, Paolo Metus, Annalisa Polizzi Anselmo, Danilo Villalta, Anna Ferrari, Roberto Castello, Graziella Giani, Elio Tonutti, Nicola Bizzaro and Renato Tozzoli

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2015 6:70

    Content type: Original Article

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  28. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is relatively a new growing entity of immune-mediated origin, characterized by a mass-forming lesion, the infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and occasionally elevated ser...

    Authors: Abo-Helo Nizar and Elias Toubi

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2015 6:69

    Content type: Review Article

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  29. Anti-ZnT8 antibodies (ZnT8A) were recently proposed as a new independent serological marker in Type 1 diabetes (T1D), leading to a significant improvement of the positive predictive value of autoantibody meas...

    Authors: Martina Fabris, Silvia Zago, Marco Liguori, Maria Teresa Trevisan, Manuela Zanatta, Alberto Comici, Giorgio Zanette, Eva Carlin, Francesco Curcio and Elio Tonutti

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2015 6:68

    Content type: Original Article

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  30. Over the past two decades, we have witnessed an extraordinary change in autoimmune diagnostics, characterized by the progressive evolution of analytical technologies, the availability of new tests, and the exp...

    Authors: Renato Tozzoli, Federica D’Aurizio, Danilo Villalta and Nicola Bizzaro

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2015 6:67

    Content type: Review Article

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  31. Recent studies have demonstrated that serum/plasma DNA and RNA molecules in addition to proteins can serve as biomarkers. Elevated levels of these nucleic acids have been found not only in acute, but also in c...

    Authors: Marina Dunaeva, Bastiaan C. Buddingh’, René E. M. Toes, Jolanda J. Luime, Erik Lubberts and Ger J. M. Pruijn

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2015 6:66

    Content type: Original Article

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  32. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a rare disease; so far standardized therapy has not been adequately defined by national or international guidelines or recommendations. Corticosteroids are the main...

    Authors: Luca Iaccarino, Elena Bartoloni, Roberto Gerli, Alessia Alunno, Simone Barsotti, Giacomo Cafaro, Mariele Gatto, Rosaria Talarico, Alessandra Tripoli, Margherita Zen, Rossella Neri and Andrea Doria

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2014 5:65

    Content type: Review Article

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  33. An association between many psychiatric and gluten-related disorders has been known for some time. In the case of schizophrenia and mood disorders, the major psychiatric disorders, there is much evidence, not ...

    Authors: Brunetta Porcelli, Valeria Verdino, Letizia Bossini, Lucia Terzuoli and Andrea Fagiolini

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2014 5:64

    Content type: Review Article

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  34. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a group of diseases characterized by inflammation of the skeletal muscle. Weakness, mainly affecting the proximal muscles, is the cardinal muscular symptom in IIM. ...

    Authors: L. Iaccarino, E. Pegoraro, L. Bello, S. Bettio, E. Borella, L. Nalotto, C. Semplicini, G. Sorarù, A. Ghirardello and A. Doria

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2014 5:63

    Content type: Review Article

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  35. The gold standard to characterize idiopathic inflammatory myopathies is the morphological, immunohistochemical and immunopathological analysis of muscle biopsy. Mononuclear cell infiltrates and muscle fiber ne...

    Authors: Gaetano Vattemi, Massimiliano Mirabella, Valeria Guglielmi, Matteo Lucchini, Giuliano Tomelleri, Anna Ghirardello and Andrea Doria

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2014 5:62

    Content type: Review Article

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  36. Autoantibodies are powerful diagnostic tools in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, especially for confirming the diagnosis and contributing to the definition of disease subsets. They are present in over 80 % ...

    Authors: Anna Ghirardello, Elisabetta Borella, Marianna Beggio, Franco Franceschini, Micaela Fredi and Andrea Doria

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2014 5:60

    Content type: Review Article

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  37. To evaluate the impact of the introduction of the anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin autoantibodies (aPS/PT) in the laboratory diagnostic process of anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (APS).

    Authors: Martina Fabris, Roberta Giacomello, Alessandra Poz, Lisa Pantarotto, Nicolanna Tanzi, Francesco Curcio and Elio Tonutti

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2014 5:61

    Content type: Original Article

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  38. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is considered an autoimmune disease with multiorgan involvement. Many advances have been made during the last decade regarding inflammatory pathways, genetic and epigenetic a...

    Authors: D. Squatrito, G. Emmi, E. Silvestri, L. Ciucciarelli, M. M. D’Elios, D. Prisco and L. Emmi

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2014 5:58

    Content type: Review Article

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  39. The aim of this study was to compare the degree of agreement of a novel Zenit RA chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) from A. Menarini Diagnostics (Florence, Italy) and the gold standard immunoprecipitation ass...

    Authors: Carmen Gelpí, Elena Pérez and Cristina Roldan

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2014 5:59

    Content type: Review Article

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  40. Type 3 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS-3) is defined by the presence of an autoimmune thyroid disease and another autoimmune illness, excluding Addison’s disease; this is a frequent combination.

    Authors: Corrado Betterle, Silvia Garelli, Graziella Coco and Patrizia Burra

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2014 5:55

    Content type: Case Report

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  41. Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis represent two paradigmatic conditions characterized by chronic inflammation and possibly autoimmunity, despite the absence of known serum autoantibodies. The two diseases, alb...

    Authors: Beatrice Marinoni, Angela Ceribelli, Marco S. Massarotti and Carlo Selmi

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2014 5:57

    Content type: Review Article

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  42. The antiphospholipid syndrome is characterized by a combination of laboratory findings (i.e., the presence of at least one antiphospholipid antibody) and clinical manifestations (arterial and/or venous thrombo...

    Authors: Monica Galli

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2013 5:56

    Content type: Review Article

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  43. Streptococcus pyogenes infections remain a health problem in multiple countries because of poststreptococcal sequelae, such as rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. The epidemiological growth of streptococ...

    Authors: Luiza Guilherme, Edilberto Postol, Frederico Moraes Ferreira, Lea M. F. DeMarchi and Jorge Kalil

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2013 4:53

    Content type: Review Article

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  44. To determine serum soluble CD30 (sCD30) levels in patients with graft versus host disease (GVHD).

    Authors: Amedeo Amedei, Nicola Pimpinelli, Alessia Grassi, Chiara Della Bella, Elena Niccolai, Simona Brancati, Marisa Benagiano, Sofia D’Elios, Alberto Bosi and Mario M. D’Elios

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2013 5:54

    Content type: Original Article

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  45. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing medium-size-vessel vasculitis with variable clinical manifestations. Diagnosis is confirmed by histology or angiography. The mainstay of treatment is cortic...

    Authors: Petra M. Pego, Inês Aguiar Câmara, José Pedro Andrade and João Matos Costa

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2013 4:48

    Content type: Case report

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  46. This study aims to investigate any associations of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 in treated patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the enteropathic seronegative spondylarthritis (eSpA).

    Authors: Periklis Vounotrypidis, Georgios Kouklakis, Konstantinos Anagnostopoulos, Petros Zezos, Alexandros Polychronidis, Efstratios Maltezos, Eleni Efremidou, Michael Pitiakoudis and Nikolaos Lyratzopoulos

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2013 4:49

    Content type: Original Article

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  47. Behçet’s syndrome (BS) is a chronic recurrent inflammatory disorder characterized by oral and genital ulcers and ocular inflammation. BS has a complex genetic etiology. To evaluate the influence of human leuko...

    Authors: Fatemeh Zare Shahneh, Fatemeh Hamzavi, Babak Bayazi, Ali Bandehagh and Behzad Baradaran

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2013 4:47

    Content type: Short Communication

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