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  1. Content type: Review

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system characterized by focal or diffuse inflammation, demyelination, axonal loss and neurodegeneration. Brain atrophy can be seen i...

    Authors: Athina Andravizou, Efthimios Dardiotis, Artemios Artemiadis, Maria Sokratous, Vasileios Siokas, Zisis Tsouris, Athina-Maria Aloizou, Ioannis Nikolaidis, Christos Bakirtzis, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Georgia Deretzi, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Dimitrios P. Bogdanos and Georgios M. Hadjigeorgiou

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2019 10:7

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  2. Content type: Original Article

    Screening for paraneoplastic antibodies is often performed by means of indirect immunofluorescence on primate cerebellar slices. However, atypical immunofluorescence patterns, i.e. patterns that are not specifica...

    Authors: Joris Godelaine, Xavier Bossuyt and Koen Poesen

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2019 10:6

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  3. Content type: Original Article

    Although many assays have been developed to detect anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies, most of these assays require sophisticated techniques and are thus only available at specialized laboratories. The aim of ...

    Authors: Marilina Tampoia, Letizia Abbracciavento, Giuseppina Barberio, Martina Fabris and Nicola Bizzaro

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2019 10:5

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  4. Content type: Original Article

    Apart from endoscopic interventions, readily attainable cost-effective biomarkers for ulcerative colitis (UC) assessment are required. For this purpose, we evaluated differential leucocytic ratio, mainly neutr...

    Authors: Ashraf M. Okba, Mariam M. Amin, Ahmed S. Abdelmoaty, Hend E. Ebada, Amgad H. kamel, Ahmed S. Allam and Omar M. Sobhy

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2019 10:4

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  5. Content type: Original Article

    The introduction of the anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT) antibodies among the routinely investigated anti-phospholipid (aPL) antibodies led to an improvement in anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) lab...

    Authors: A. Cifù, R. Domenis, C. Pistis, F. Curcio and M. Fabris

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2019 10:3

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  6. Content type: Original Article

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) primarily includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine produced by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) with immun...

    Authors: Sahar Tahaghoghi-Hajghorbani, Abolghasem Ajami, Saeedeh Ghorbanalipoor, Zahra Hosseini-khah, Saeid Taghiloo, Peyman Khaje-Enayati and Vahid Hosseini

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2019 10:1

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  7. Content type: Review Article

    Current clinical experience with immunomodulatory agents and monoclonal antibodies in principle has established the benefit of depleting lymphocytic populations in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS)...

    Authors: Georgios K. Vasileiadis, Efthymios Dardiotis, Athanasios Mavropoulos, Zisis Tsouris, Vana Tsimourtou, Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, Lazaros I. Sakkas and Georgios M. Hadjigeorgiou

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2018 9:9

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  8. Content type: Original Article

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on the human epithelial cell-line HEp-2 (or derivatives) serves as the gold standard in antinuclear antibody (ANA) screening. IIF, and its evaluation, is a labor-intensive met...

    Authors: Joyce J. B. C. van Beers, Melanie Hahn, Johanna Fraune, Kathleen Mallet, Christopher Krause, Wymke Hormann, Kai Fechner and Jan G. M. C. Damoiseaux

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2018 9:8

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  9. Content type: Review Article

    This case uniquely reports a connection between endodontically infected teeth and systemic disease, and additionally presents ozone therapy as a unique therapy and immune system modulator. It is the world’s fi...

    Authors: Robert Jay Rowen

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2018 9:7

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  10. Content type: Original Article

    Anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL) analyzed by line immunoassay (LIA) can recognize beta2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) domain 1 (D1) epitopes depending on β2GPI binding to distinct phospholipids. The aPL LIA was compar...

    Authors: Cecilia Nalli, Valentina Somma, Laura Andreoli, Thomas Büttner, Peter Schierack, Michael Mahler, Dirk Roggenbuck and Angela Tincani

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2018 9:6

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  11. Content type: Case Report

    Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is a systemic auto-immune disorder with a variety of presentations and wide spread organ involvement. We present a case report of a patient with an SLE exacerbation as well as...

    Authors: Daniel Nguyen, Farah Alsaati, Jena Deitrick, Kamel Azhar and Evelyn Sbar

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2018 9:5

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  12. Content type: Case Report

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease which has broad pleuropulmonary manifestations. One of the rare and mortal complications is acute lupus pneumonitis, which is reported very r...

    Authors: Tuğba Şişmanlar Eyüboğlu, Ayşe Tana Aslan, Yeşim Özdemir, Deniz Gezgin Yıldırım, Necla Buyan and Öznur Boyunağa

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2018 9:4

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  13. Content type: Original Article

    Thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) autoantibodies (TRAbs) are a hallmark of Graves’ disease (GD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a new third generation automatic fluorescence enzyme ...

    Authors: Danilo Villalta, Federica D’Aurizio, Mirella Da Re, Debora Ricci, Francesco Latrofa and Renato Tozzoli

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2018 9:3

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  14. Content type: Review Article

    Vitamin D is one of the main groups of sterols; playing an important role in phospho-calcic metabolism. The conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to pre- vitamin D3 in the skin, through solar ultraviolet B radiat...

    Authors: Tohid Hassanalilou, Leila Khalili, Saeid Ghavamzadeh, Ali Shokri, Laleh Payahoo and Yaser Khaje Bishak

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2017 9:1

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  15. Content type: Original Article

    Celiac disease (CD) diagnosis can be established by serological and small bowel biopsy (SBB), while absence of HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 haplotypes excludes the disease. The present study aims at evaluating the diagnos...

    Authors: Basim M. Ayesh, Eman Kh. Zaqout and Maged M. Yassin

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2017 8:11

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  16. Content type: Review Article

    The sequencing of the human genome is now well recognized as the starting point of personalized medicine. Nonetheless, everyone is unique and can develop different phenotypes of the same disease, despite ident...

    Authors: Silvia Sirotti, Elena Generali, Angela Ceribelli, Natasa Isailovic, Maria De Santis and Carlo Selmi

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2017 8:10

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  17. Content type: Original Article

    In the last two decades, thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) measurement has progressively switched from marker of thyroid autoimmunity to test associated with thyroglobulin (Tg) to verify the presence or abse...

    Authors: F. D’Aurizio, P. Metus, A. Ferrari, B. Caruso, R. Castello, D. Villalta, A. Steffan, K. Gaspardo, F. Pesente, N. Bizzaro, E. Tonutti, S. Valverde, C. Cosma, M. Plebani and R. Tozzoli

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2017 8:8

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  18. Content type: Original Article

    The anion channel protein band 3 is the main target of the pathogenic red blood cells (RBC) autoantibodies in New Zealand black (NZB) mice. CD4 T cells from NZB mice with autoimmune hemolytic anemia respond to...

    Authors: Abdel-Rahman Youssef and Christopher J. Elson

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2017 8:7

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  19. Content type: Case Report

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by an immune-mediated disorder, which leads to the development of non-caseating granulomas in the involved organs. More than 90% of patients with sarcoidosis pre...

    Authors: Moris Sangineto, Chiara Valentina Luglio, Patrizia Suppressa, Carlo Sabbà and Nicola Napoli

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2017 8:6

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  20. Content type: Original Article

    To explore the role of plasmatic platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), a marker of cardiovascular risk, in patients with anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL).

    Authors: Martina Fabris, Adriana Cifù, Cinzia Pistis, Massimo Siega-Ducaton, Desrè Ethel Fontana, Roberta Giacomello, Elio Tonutti and Francesco Curcio

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2017 8:5

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  21. Content type: Review Article

    Testing for total antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is a critical tool for diagnosis and management of autoimmune diseases at both the primary care and subspecialty settings. Repurposing of ANA from a test for lupu...

    Authors: Konstantin N. Konstantinov and Robert L. Rubin

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2017 8:4

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  22. Content type: Original Article

    The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is the target autoantigen for TSHR-stimulating autoantibodies in Graves’ disease. The TSHR is composed of: a leucine-rich repeat domain (LRD), a hinge region or ...

    Authors: Ricardo Núñez Miguel, Jane Sanders, Jadwiga Furmaniak and Bernard Rees Smith

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 8:2

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  23. Content type: Original Article

    Antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) targeting the dense fine speckled antigen DFS70, also known as lens epithelium-derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75), are attracting attention due to their low frequency in sys...

    Authors: Mónica Vázquez-Del Mercado, Eduardo Gómez-Bañuelos, Rosa Elena Navarro-Hernández, Oscar Pizano-Martinez, Adan Saldaña-Millán, Efrain Chavarria-Avila, Lorena Gonzalez-Rosas, Lilia Andrade-Ortega, Miguel Angel Saavedra, Olga Lidia Vera-Lastra, Luis Javier Jara, Gabriel Medrano-Ramírez, Claudia Cruz-Reyes, Ignacio García-De la Torre, Marta Escarra-Senmarti, Lisiane Maria Enriconi-Dos Anjos…

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 8:1

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  24. Content type: Original Article

    Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is an autoimmune degenerative disease of the muscle, with inflammatory infiltrates and inclusion vacuoles. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood and the diagnosis is ...

    Authors: Sabine L. Kramp, Dmitry Karayev, Guo Shen, Allan L. Metzger, Robert I. Morris, Eugene Karayev, Yvonne Lam, Richard M. Kazdan, Ger J. M. Pruijn, Sandra Saschenbrecker, Cornelia Dähnrich and Wolfgang Schlumberger

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:16

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  25. Content type: Short Communication

    Autoantibodies to intracellular ‘rods and rings’ structures (anti-rods/rings or anti-RR) are strongly associated with hepatitis C (HCV) patients treated with interferon-α/ribavirin (IFN/RBV) and are linked wit...

    Authors: S. John Calise, Nicola Bizzaro, Thuy Nguyen, Danila Bassetti, Brunetta Porcelli, Paolo Almi, Giuseppina Barberio, Giampaola Pesce, Minoru Satoh and Edward K. L. Chan

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:15

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  26. Content type: Original Article

    The enumeration of intraepithelial lymphocytes subsets (total, γδ, and CD3 IELs) by flow cytometry (FCM), named as IEL lymphogram, constitutes a useful tool for celiac disease (CD) diagnosis. The aim of this stu...

    Authors: M. Sánchez-Castañon, B. G. Castro, M. Toca, C. Santacruz, M. Arias-Loste, P. Iruzubieta, J. Crespo and Marcos López-Hoyos

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:14

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  27. Content type: Review Article

    Exogenous and endogenous environmental exposures and particularly infections may participate in the breakage of tolerance and the induction of autoimmunity in rheumatic diseases. Response to infections apparen...

    Authors: Lazaros I. Sakkas and Dimitrios P. Bogdanos

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:13

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  28. Content type: Review Article

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system that involves several not yet fully elucidated pathophysiologic mechanisms. There is increasing...

    Authors: Maria Sokratous, Efthimios Dardiotis, Zisis Tsouris, Eleni Bellou, Amalia Michalopoulou, Vasileios Siokas, Stylianos Arseniou, Tzeni Stamati, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Dimitrios Bogdanos and Georgios M. Hadjigeorgiou

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:12

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  29. Content type: Review Article

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been extensively studied in the induction of inflammation and tissue damage, especially as it relates to aging. In more recent years, ROS have been implicated in the pathogen...

    Authors: Giulia Di Dalmazi, Jason Hirshberg, Daniel Lyle, Joudeh B. Freij and Patrizio Caturegli

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:11

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  30. Content type: Original Article

    The presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is associated with a wide range of ANA-associated autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AARD). The most commonly method used for the detection of ANA is indirect immunoflu...

    Authors: Simón Gundín, Juan Irure-Ventura, Esther Asensio, David Ramos, Michael Mahler, Victor Martínez-Taboada and Marcos López-Hoyos

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:10

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  31. Content type: Original Article

    Reflex tests are widely used in clinical laboratories, for example, to diagnose thyroid disorders or in the follow-up of prostate cancer. Reflex tests for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) have recently gained atte...

    Authors: Elio Tonutti, Nicola Bizzaro, Gabriella Morozzi, Antonella Radice, Luigi Cinquanta, Danilo Villalta, Renato Tozzoli, Marilina Tampoia, Brunetta Porcelli, Martina Fabris, Ignazio Brusca, Maria Grazia Alessio, Giuseppina Barberio, Maria Concetta Sorrentino, Antonio Antico, Danila Bassetti…

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:9

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  32. Content type: Original Article

    The dense fine speckled (DFS) pattern as detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on HEp-2 cells has been associated with several inflammatory diseases but is most commonly observed in individuals that do...

    Authors: Chelsea Bentow, Marvin J. Fritzler, Eckart Mummert and Michael Mahler

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:8

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  33. Content type: Case Report

    Autoimmune disorders are known to be more frequent in women and often associated each others, but it is rare to see multiple autoimmune diseases in a single patient. Recently, the concept of multiple autoimmun...

    Authors: Viera Boccuti, Antonio Perrone, Alessia D’Introno, Anna Campobasso, Moris Sangineto and Carlo Sabbà

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:7

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  34. Content type: Review Article

    The complement system is an enzyme cascade that helps defend against infection. Many complement proteins occur in serum as inactive enzyme precursors or reside on cell surfaces. Complement components have many...

    Authors: Samuel Antwi-Baffour, Ransford Kyeremeh, Jonathan Kofi Adjei, Claudia Aryeh and George Kpentey

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:6

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  35. Content type: Original Article

    Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) identifies the microvascular hallmarks of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and may play a pivotal role in the associated vasculopathy. ...

    Authors: Maria De Santis, Angela Ceribelli, Francesca Cavaciocchi, Chiara Crotti, Marco Massarotti, Laura Belloli, Bianca Marasini, Natasa Isailovic, Elena Generali and Carlo Selmi

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:5

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  36. Content type: Review Article

    Behçet’s disease, also known as the Silk Road Disease, is a rare systemic vasculitis disorder of unknown etiology. Recurrent attacks of acute inflammation characterize Behçet’s disease. Frequent oral aphthous ...

    Authors: Mohamad J. Zeidan, David Saadoun, Marlene Garrido, David Klatzmann, Adrien Six and Patrice Cacoub

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:4

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  37. Content type: Original Article

    The hygiene hypothesis, formulated to explain the increased incidence of allergic and autoimmune diseases observed in industrialized countries, remains controversial. We reflected upon this hypothesis during ...

    Authors: Giorgio Caturegli and Patrizio Caturegli

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:3

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  38. Content type: Original Article

    Celiac disease (CD) serology requires analysis of tissue transglutaminase type-2 (TG2autoAbs), deamidated gliadin (DGAbs), and as reference endomysial autoantibodies (EmA). Total IgA assessment helps to determ...

    Authors: Kai Grossmann, Nadja Röber, Rico Hiemann, Stefan Rödiger, Peter Schierack, Dirk Reinhold, Martin W. Laass, Karsten Conrad and Dirk Roggenbuck

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:2

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  39. Content type: Original Article

    The International Consensus on ANA Patterns (ICAP) was initiated as a workshop aiming to thoroughly discuss and achieve consensus regarding the morphological patterns observed in the indirect immunofluorescenc...

    Authors: Jan Damoiseaux, Carlos A. von Mühlen, Ignacio Garcia-De La Torre, Orlando Gabriel Carballo, Wilson de Melo Cruvinel, Paulo Luiz Carvalho Francescantonio, Marvin J. Fritzler, Manfred Herold, Tsuneyo Mimori, Minoru Satoh, Luis E. C. Andrade, Edward K. L. Chan and Karsten Conrad

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2016 7:1

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  40. Content type: Case Report

    Adult onset Still’s disease (AOSD) is a systemic auto-inflammatory condition of unknown etiology, characterized by high fever, an evanescent, salmon-pink maculopapular skin rash, arthralgia or arthritis and le...

    Authors: Despina Michailidou, Junghee Shin, Inga Forde, Kavitha Gopalratnam, Paul Cohen and Angela DeGirolamo

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2015 6:71

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  41. Content type: Original Article

    The estimation of the upper reference limit (URL) for autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOAbs) is a controversial issue, because of an uncertainty associated with the criteria used to correctly defin...

    Authors: Federica D’Aurizio, Paolo Metus, Annalisa Polizzi Anselmo, Danilo Villalta, Anna Ferrari, Roberto Castello, Graziella Giani, Elio Tonutti, Nicola Bizzaro and Renato Tozzoli

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2015 6:70

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  42. Content type: Review Article

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is relatively a new growing entity of immune-mediated origin, characterized by a mass-forming lesion, the infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and occasionally elevated ser...

    Authors: Abo-Helo Nizar and Elias Toubi

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2015 6:69

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  43. Content type: Original Article

    Anti-ZnT8 antibodies (ZnT8A) were recently proposed as a new independent serological marker in Type 1 diabetes (T1D), leading to a significant improvement of the positive predictive value of autoantibody meas...

    Authors: Martina Fabris, Silvia Zago, Marco Liguori, Maria Teresa Trevisan, Manuela Zanatta, Alberto Comici, Giorgio Zanette, Eva Carlin, Francesco Curcio and Elio Tonutti

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2015 6:68

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  44. Content type: Review Article

    Over the past two decades, we have witnessed an extraordinary change in autoimmune diagnostics, characterized by the progressive evolution of analytical technologies, the availability of new tests, and the exp...

    Authors: Renato Tozzoli, Federica D’Aurizio, Danilo Villalta and Nicola Bizzaro

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2015 6:67

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  45. Content type: Original Article

    Recent studies have demonstrated that serum/plasma DNA and RNA molecules in addition to proteins can serve as biomarkers. Elevated levels of these nucleic acids have been found not only in acute, but also in c...

    Authors: Marina Dunaeva, Bastiaan C. Buddingh’, René E. M. Toes, Jolanda J. Luime, Erik Lubberts and Ger J. M. Pruijn

    Citation: Autoimmunity Highlights 2015 6:66

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