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Table 4 Rare autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and reported associations

From: Personalized medicine in rheumatology: the paradigm of serum autoantibodies

Autoantibody Prevalence (%) Clinical associations References
Anti-Sm 15 LN, NPSLE, discoid SLE, photosensitivity [98, 99]
Anti-ribosomal P 10 NPSLE, renal and hepatic disorders, malar rash, oral ulcer and photosensitivity, blood–brain barrier permeation [77, 98]
Anti-La (SS-B) 10–15 Organ dysfunction (kidney, lung, liver) [100, 101]
Anti-Ki 6–20 Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, ITP, idiopathic ILD, PM/SSc overlap, synovitis, pericarditis, PAH, skin involvement and sicca symptoms [102]
Anti-histone 21–81 Drug-induced SLE [103]
  1. LN lupus nephritis, NPSLE neuro psychiatric SLE, SCLE subacute cutaneous SLE, UCTD undifferentiated connective tissue disease, ITP autoimmune thrombocytopenia