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Table 1 IIF ANA patterns and relevant clinical associations

From: Personalized medicine in rheumatology: the paradigm of serum autoantibodies

Pattern Related antigens Related diagnosis
Nuclear
 Homogeneous dsDNA, histones, nucleosomes SLE, drug-induced lupus, JIA
 Speckled hnRNP, U1RNP, Sm, SS-A, SS-B, RNAP-III, Mi-2, Ku MCTD, SLE, SjS, DM, SSc/PM overlap
  Dense fine speckled DFS70/LEDGF Rare in SLE, SjS, SSc
  Fine speckled SS-A, SS-B, Mi-2, TIF1γ, TIF1β, Ku, RNA helicase A, replication protein A SjS, SLE, DM, SSc/PM overlap
  Large/coarse speckled hnRNP, U1RNP, Sm, RNAP-III MCTD, SLE, SSc
 Centromere CENP-A/B lcSSc, PBC
 Discrete nuclear dots
  Multiple nuclear dots Sp100, PML protein, MJ/NXP-2 PBC, SARD, PM/DM
  Few nuclear dots p80-coilin, SMN SjS, SLE, SSc, PM, asymptomatic subjects
 Nucleolar
  Homogeneous PM/Scl75, PM/Scl100, Th/To, B23 nucleophosmin, nucleolin, No55/SC65 SSc, SSc/PM overlap
  Clumpy U3-snoRNP/fibrillarin SSc
  Punctate RNAP-I, hUBF/NOR-90 SSc, SjS
 Nuclear envelope (NE)
  Smooth NE Lamins A, B, C, or lamin associated proteins SLE, SjS, seronegative arthritis
  Punctate NE Nuclear pore complex proteins PBC
 Pleomorphic
  PCNA-like PCNA SLE, other conditions
  CENP F-like CENP-F Cancer, other conditions
Cytoplasmic
 Fibrillar
  Linear/actin Actin, non-muscle myosin MCTD, CH, cirrhosis, MG, CD, PBC, long-term HD
  Filamentous/microtubules Vimentin, cytokeratin Infections or inflammations, long-term HD, ALD, SARD, PsO, healthy subjects
  Segmental α actinin, vinculin, tropomyosin MG, CD, UC
 Speckled
  Discrete dots GW182, Su/Ago2, Ge-1 PBC, SARD, neurological and autoimmune conditions
  Dense fine speckled PL-7, PL-12, ribosomal P proteins ASS, PM/DM, SLE, juvenile SLE, neuroSLE
  Fine speckled Jo1/histidyl-tRNA synthetase ASS, PM/DM, lcSSc, IPE
 Reticular/AMA PDC-E2/M2, BCOADC-E2, OGDC-E2, E1α subunit of PDC, E3BP/proteinX PBC, SSc, rare in other SARD
 Polar/Golgi-like Giantin/macrogolgin, golgin-95/GM130, golgin-160, golgin-97, golgin-245 Rare in SjS, SLE, RA, MCTD, GPA, ICA, PCD, viral infections
 Rods and rings IMPDH2, others HCV patients post IFN/ribavirin, rare in SLE,
Hashimoto’s and healthy controls
Mitotic
 Centrosome Pericentrin, ninein, Cep250, Cep110, enolase Rare in SSc, RD, infections (viral and mycoplasma)
 Spindle fibers HsEg5 Rare in SjS, SLE, other SARD
  NuMA-like Centrophilin SjS, SLE, other
 Intercellular bridge Aurora kinase B, CENP-E, MSA2, KIF14, MKLP1 Rare in SSc, RD, malignancies
 Mitotic chromosomal envelope Modified histone H3, MCA1 Rare in DLE, CLL, SjS, PMR
  1. Table 1 illustrates ANA patterns in IIF in three major categories, subdivided into groups and subgroups of patterns, with their antigenic and diagnostic associations. The information was taken from http://www.ANApattern.org and the related diagnoses were added by Chan EKL et al. [84]
  2. SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, JIA juvenile idiopathic arthritis, MCTD mixed connective tissue disease, SjS Sjögren’s syndrome, DM dermatomyositis, PM polymyositis, SSc systemic sclerosis (lc limited, dc diffuse), PBC primary biliary cholangitis, SARD systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases, CH chronic hepatitis, MG myasthenia gravis, CD Crohn’s disease, HD haemodialysis, ALD alcoholic liver disease, PsO psoriasis, UC ulcerative colitis, ASS anti-synthetase syndrome, IPE idiopathic pleural effusion, RA rheumatoid arthritis, GPA granulomatosis with polyangiitis, ICA idiopathic cerebellar ataxia, PCD paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, RD Raynaud’s phenomenon, DLE discoid lupus erythematosus, CLL chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, PMR polymyalgia rheumatica