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Table 3 Characteristic therapies for Behçet’s disease

From: Behçet’s disease physiopathology: a contemporary review

Treatment Characteristic clinical manifestation focus Immunosuppressive mechanisms of action
Apremilast Mucocutaneous Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor
Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Ocular
Neurological
Cardiovascular
Gastrointestinal
Neutralize biological activity of TNF-α
Azathioprine Articular
Ocular
Cardiovascular
Mucocutaneous
Inhibit synthesis of DNA and RNA and proliferation of T and B lymphocytes
Calcineurin inhibitors Refractory Inhibit activation and recruitment of T lymphocytes
Colchicine Articular
Mucocutaneous
Ocular
Neurological
Cardiovascular
Gastrointestinal
Inhibit neutrophil function
Corticosteroids Articular
Mucocutaneous
Ocular
Neurological
Cardiovascular
Gastrointestinal
Inhibit neutrophil function
General immunosuppressive activity
Cyclosporine A (alkylating agents) Neurological
Ocular
Inhibit lymphocyte function
Dapsone Mucocutaneous Antibacterial agent
Interferon-α Ocular
Neurological
Cardiovascular
Gastrointestinal
Antiviral activity
Methotrexate Mucocutaneous
Neurological
Ocular
Articular
Inhibit synthesis of DNA, RNA, and thymidylates
Pentoxifylline Mucocutaneous Inhibit synthesis of cytokines
Sulfasalazine Articular
Gastrointestinal
General immunosuppressive activity
Thalidomide Mucocutaneous
Gastrointestinal
Unidentified immunomodulatory activity