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Table 2 Current use of immunological methods for the detection of autoantibodies in clinical laboratories

From: Automation in indirect immunofluorescence testing: a new step in the evolution of the autoimmunology laboratory

Autoantibody IIF IMA
ANA +++ +
Anti-dsDNA +++ +++
Anti-ENA +++
AMA +++ +++
PCA +++ ++
ASMA +++ ++
ACA +++ −/+
APA ++
ATA +++
EmA ++ +++
ICA + +++
ASA +++ +
ASCA + +++
ANCA +++ ++
  1. IIFindirect immunofluorescence, IMAimmunometric assays, ANAantinuclear antibodies, ENAextractable nuclear antibodies, AMAanti-mitochondrial antibodies, PCAparietal cells antibodies, ACAadrenal cortex antibodies, APAanti-pituitary antibodies, ATAanti-thyroid antibodies, EmAanti-endomysial antibodies, ICAislet cells antibodies, ASAanti-skin antibodies, ASCAanti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies, ANCAanti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies