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Fig. 3 | Autoimmunity Highlights

Fig. 3

From: The immunofluorescence techniques in the diagnosis of endocrine autoimmune diseases

Fig. 3

Indirect IF on human unfixed pancreas. a Pattern produced by a normal serum: the cells of the islet are negative (arrow), the fluorescence is concentrated in the connective tissue inside and outside the islet. b Pattern produced by a serum of a patient with high titers of ICA: the positivity is present on cytoplasm of all the islet-cells, while the capillaries inside the islets are negative. c Pattern produced by a serum of a patient with antibodies to separate cells of the islet: the serum stains with a great intensity the cytoplasm of cells scattered in the islet. d Pattern produced by the serum of a patient with high titers of ICA and of anti-nuclear Abs: the serum stains intensively the cytoplasm of the islet-cell and the nucleoli of all the cells inside and outside the islet (nucleolus pattern). e Pattern produced by a serum of a patient with high titers of mitochondria Abs: the serum stains weakly the cytoplasm of all the cells in the exocrine tissue, with a major intensity against some cells (rich in mitochondria) (arrow). f Pattern produced by a serum of a patient with ribosomal autoantibodies: the cytoplasm of the cells of the exocrine tissue is diffusely stained, on the contrary the islet-cells are negative (arrow)

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